ALLAMA MUHAMMAD IQBAL
INTRODUCTION – ALLAMA MUHAMMAD IQBAL
Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal was a bard, theorist, government official, and in addition a scholastic, lawyer and researcher in British India who is broadly viewed as having propelled the Pakistan Movement. He is known as the “Spiritual father of Pakistan”. He is viewed as one of the greatest significant figures in Urdu literature, with legendary effort in both the Urdu and Persian dialects. He was commonly recognized as Allama Iqbal.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal – Iqbal is appreciated as a conspicuous poet by Pakistanis, Iranians, Indians, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans and other worldwide researchers of writing. In spite of the fact that Allama Muhammad Iqbal is superlative branded as a prominent bard, he is likewise an exceedingly acclaimed “Muslim philosophical mastermind of current circumstances”.
His first verse book, Asrar-e-Khudi, showed up in the Persian dialect in 1915, and different books of verse include Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, Payam-i-Mashriq and Zabur-i-Ajam. Surrounded by these, his acclaimed Urdu works are Bang-i-Dara, Bal-i-Jibril, Zarb-iKalim and a piece of Armughan-e-Hijaz. Alongside his Urdu and Persian verse, his Urdu and English addresses and letters have been extremely powerful in traditional, social, spiritual and governmental arguments.
In 1922, he was honored by King George V, giving him the title “Sir”. For the period of examining law and theory in England, Allama Muhammad Iqbal turned into an individual from the London area office of the All-India Muslim League. After that during the December 1930 session of the league, he conveyed his most eminent diplomatic speaking recognized as the Allahabad Address in which he emphasized for the establishment of a Muslim state in Northwest India. In quite a bit of South Asia and the places where Urdu is spoken, Iqbal is viewed as the”Poet of the East”. He is additionally called “The Thinker of Pakistan”, and “The Sage of the Ummah”. The Pakistan government authoritatively named him a “national poet”. His birthday or Iqbal Day, is an open occasion in Pakistan. In India he is additionally recognized as the creator of the famous tune Saare Jahaan Se Acha.
Muhammad Iqbal was born on November 9, 1877 in Sialkot, inside the Punjab province of British India. His grandparents were Kashmiri Pandits, who changed over to Islam. In the nineteenth century, when the Sikh Empire was overcoming Kashmir, his granddad’s family moved to Punjab. Iqbal regularly said and recognized his Kashmiri Pandit Brahmin genealogy in his works. Iqbal’s dad, Sheikh Noor Muhammad who was passed on in the year 1930, was a tailor, not formally taught but rather a religious man. Iqbal’s mom Imam Bibi was a gracious and humble lady who helped poor people and tackled the issues of neighbors. She passed away on 9 November 1914 in Sialkot. Iqbal adored his mother, and on her passing away he conveyed his emotional state of sorrow in a rhythmical form poem. Iqbal was at the age of four years when he was sent to the mosque to study the Holy Qur’an. He learned the Arabic dialect from his educator Syed Mir Hassan, the leader of the madrassa and teacher of Arabic dialect at Scotch Mission College in Sialkot, from where he did his matriculation in 1893. He completed his intermediate from Government College Lahore where he got his Bachelor of Arts in theory, English writing and Arabic in 1897, and won the Khan Bahadurddin F.S. Jalaluddin decoration as he took higher marks in Arabic course. In 1899, he got his Masters of Arts degree from a similar college and had the primary spot in Punjab University, Lahore.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal wedded thrice. In 1895, while studying Bachelor of Arts he had his firstly wedding with Karim Bibi, through an arranged marriage. Karim Bibi was the daughter of general practitioner Khan Bahadur Ata Muhammad Khan who was the maternal grand-dad of director and musician Khwaja Khurshid Anwar. They had two children, a daughter named Miraj Begum and a son Aftab Iqbal. After that, Iqbal got married again with Sardar Begum, who was the mother of Javed Iqbal. Lastly, the name of his third wife with whom he was married in December, 1914 was Mukhtar Begum.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal was impacted by the lessons of Sir Thomas Arnold, his philosophy educator at Government School Lahore. Arnold’s lessons decided Iqbal to seek after advanced education in the West, and in 1905, he headed out to England for that reason. He qualified for a studentship from Trinity College, University of Cambridge and attained Bachelor of Arts in 1906. In 1907, he relocated to Germany to attain his medical studies, and received a Doctor of Philosophy gradation from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in 1908. Functioning under the direction of Friedrich Hommel, his doctoral theory titled The Development of Metaphysics in Persia was distributed. In the duration of his stay in Heidelberg in 1907, his German tutor Emma Wegenast educated him about Goethe’s Faust, Heine and Nietzsche. During his scholarship in Europe, Iqbal started to compose verse in Persian. He organized it since he trusted that he had found a simple approach to express his musings. He would compose constantly in Persian for the duration of his lifetime.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal, subsequent to finishing his Master of Arts degree in 1899, started his Allama Muhammad Iqbal – vocation as a peruser of Arabic at Oriental College and before long was chosen as a junior lecturer of philosophy at Government College Lahore, where he had additionally been an understudy before. He taught there till he left for United Kingdom in 1905. In 1908, he came back from England and joined that school again as a teacher of philosophy and English writing. In the same era, he started providing legal counsel at Chief Court Lahore, yet he soon quit law practice and gave himself in scholarly works, turning into a dynamic individual from Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam. In 1919, he turned into the general secretary of the same union.
Iqbal’s views and beliefs in his effort mainly emphasis on the divine path and growth of human civilization, balanced on experiences from his journeys and visits in Western Europe and the Middle East. He was significantly impacted by Western logicians, for example, Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson and Goethe.
The verse and rationality of Mawlana Rumi bore the most profound impact at the forefront of Iqbal’s thoughts. Profoundly grounded in religion ever since youthful, he started focusing seriously on the exploration of Islam, the way of life and antiquity of Islamic human improvement and its administrative prospect, while holding onto Rumi as his guide.
Iqbal’s verse has been converted into numerous European dialects, when his work was well known amid the beginning of the twentieth century. His Asrar-i-Khudi and Javed Nama were converted into English by R. A. Nicholson and A. J. Arberry correspondingly.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal – Bang-e-Dara (The Call of the Marching Bell), his first accumulation of Urdu verse, was distributed in 1924. It was composed in three particular periods of his life. The lyrics he reviewed to 1905, that is the year he exited for England—reflect patriotism and symbolism of nature, including the Tarana-e-Hind (The melody of India), and Tarana-e-Milli (The tune of the Community). The second set of poetries date from 1905–1908, while Allama Muhammad Iqbal studied in Europe, and reside upon the environment of European civilization, which he highlighted had vanished divine and holy morals and ethics. This motivated Iqbal to compose ballads on the recorded and social legacy of Islam and the Muslim people group, with a worldwide point of view.Iqbal desires the whole Muslim people group, tended to as the Ummah, to characterize individual, societal and administrative presence by the qualities and lessons of Islam.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal – works were in Persian for a large portion of his vocation, yet after 1930 his works were principally in Urdu. His works in this era were regularly particularly coordinated at the Muslim masses of India, with a considerably more grounded accentuation on Islam and Muslim profound and political revitalization. Circulated in 1935, the Bal-e-Jibril (Wings of Gabriel) is deliberated by numerous critics as his supreme Urdu verse, and was propelled by his trip to Spain, where he went by the landmarks and inheritance of the kingdom of the Moors. It comprises of ghazals, ballads, quatrains, sayings and conveys a solid feeling of religious enthusiasm.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal – Amongst his 12,000 verses, around 7,000 verses are in Persian. In 1915, he distributed his first assortment of verse, the Asrar-e-Khudi (Secrets of the Self) in Persian. The ballads stress the soul and self from a religious, otherworldly viewpoint. In Asrar-e-Khudi, Allama Muhammad Iqbal clarifies his rationality of “Khudi,” or “Self”. Iqbal’s utilization of the expression “Khudi” is identical with “Rooh” specified in the Holy Quran. “Rooh” is that heavenly catalyst which is existing in each human being, and was present in Adam, for which God ordered all of the angels to face down in front of Adam. One has to make an incredible voyage of revolution to comprehend and appreciate that godly soul.
In his Rumuz-e-Bekhudi (Hints of Selflessness), Iqbal tries to demonstrate the Islamic lifestyle is the best set of principles for a country’s suitability. A man must keep his discrete attributes in place, yet once this is accomplished he ought to relinquish his own desire for the requirements of the country.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal – Allama Muhammad Iqbal additionally composed two books on the subject of The Development of Metaphysics in Persia and The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam and many letters in the English dialect. In these, he uncovered his musings with respect to Persian philosophy and Islamic Sufism, specifically, his convictions that Islamic Sufism actuates the seeking soul to an unrivaled view of life. He additionally talked about reasoning, God and the importance of petition, human soul and Muslim culture, and in addition other governmental, societal and religious issues.
CONCEPT OF PAKISTAN
Allama Muhammad Iqbal – Ideologically isolated from Congress Muslim pioneers, Iqbal had additionally been baffled with the lawmakers of the Muslim League attributable to the dissenting strife that tormented the League in the 1920s. Pioneers like Muhammad Shafi, Fazl-ur-Rahman and Iqbal had assurance in that only Jinnah was a governmental spearhead talented of conserving harmony and satisfying the League’s aims of Muslim political enablement.
Constructing a solid and private communication with Jinnah, Allama Muhammad Iqbal was a powerful strength in resounding Jinnah to finish his self-inflicted refugee in London, come back to India and take custody of the League. Iqbal confidently assumed that Jinnah was the only leading light proficient of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and preserving party unanimity previously the British and the Congress.
LAST STAGE OF LIFE
In 1933, subsequent to coming back from an excursion to Spain and Afghanistan, Iqbal experienced a baffling throat illness. He consumed his last years serving Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan to set up the Dar ul Islam Trust Institute at Jamalpur bequest close to Pathankot, where there were strategies to support educations in traditional Islam and modern social science. He likewise supported for an autonomous Muslim state. Iqbal stopped specializing law in 1934 and was allowed a retirement fund by the Nawab of Bhopal. In his last years, he habitually went to the Dargah of well-known Sufi Hazrat Ali Hajweri in Lahore for divine supervision.
After suffering for months through his sickness, Allama Muhammad Iqbal expired in Lahore on 21 April 1938. His tomb is situated in Hazuri Bagh, the encased garden between the passage of the Badshahi Mosque and the Lahore Fort, and authority gatekeepers are given by the Regime of Pakistan. Iqbal is honored generally in Pakistan, where he is regarded as the ideological planner of the state. His Tarana-e-Hind is a melody that is generally utilized as a part of India as an energetic tune discussing public congruity. His birthday is every year recognized in Pakistan as Iqbal Day, a national occasion. The administration and open associations have supported the foundation of instructive organizations, universities and schools devoted to Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and have set up the Iqbal Academy Pakistan to research, educate and safeguard his works, writing and reasoning. Allama Iqbal Stamps Society was built up for the advancement of Iqbaliyat in philately and in different side interests. His child Javed Iqbal has assisted as an equity on the Supreme Court of Pakistan. Javed Manzil was Iqbal’s last home.
Allama Iqbal was born on November 9, 1877 in Sialkot and breathed his last on April 21, 1938, and he rests in eternal peace in his final abode outside the Badshahi Masjid in Lahore.
Allama Iqbal: A View and a Critique
Any views expressed here are mine own and I am prepared to amend them should sufficient evidence be presented. I am no great scholar yet there are questions in respect of Iqbal’s poetry and religious ideas and the impact he had on the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent that should be critically examined.
Pakistanis have raised Iqbal to heights he neither aspired nor deserves. Some of the titles ascribed to him are gross and unnecessary exaggerations. Here are the examples, let us take them one by one.
Hakeem-ul-Ummet: Hakeem may refer to someone who has “hikma” or wisdom or it may refer to someone who heals people when they are sick. In an allegorical way it may be referring to Mr. Iqbal’s ideas on his favored political and religious solutions for the Muslims of India. I am not sure if Ummet refers to fans and followers of Mr. Iqbal in the Indo-Pak subcontinent or the entire Muslim world. Surely even the entire population of the Indian sub- continents neither understands nor subscribes to Iqbal’s views political or religious. That only leaves Muslims more particularly Muslims of Pakistan as the Ummet not the entire Muslim Ummet.
Shair-e-Mushraq: I won’t bother explaining what is a Shair. Mashraq in Arabic, Persian and Urdu means East. All of the countries starting from International Date Line to the Suez Canal and east of Bosporus and Russia (except Eurasia) are considered the East. I can’t even count the number of languages and dialects spoken in such a vast region. Linguistic domain of Mr. Iqbal’s creative endeavors was Persian and Urdu. Two languages spoken by a relatively small minority of Asia, consisting of 10 % of the population at most. Mr. Iqbal was certainly a great poet of Urdu language (since his Persian work was somewhat smaller). On the basis of these facts to call him the poet of the East is a poetic exaggeration.
Philosophy of Iqbal’s: Mr. Iqbal obtained a degree in philosophy from Heidelberg University, Germany in 1905. The title of his paper was The Development of Metaphysics in Persia: A Contribution to the History of Muslim Philosophy. As it is plain to see it was an exploration of the History of Muslim Philosophy. Philosophy as a discipline is not Muslim, Christian or Hindu, it is just philosophy. Mr. Iqbal’s work did not advance the body of knowledge we call philosophy in any significant way nor did he teach or conducted research in it beyond his doctoral thesis.
What is the classical definition of a philosopher? The best one I can find is the following:
a person who studies ideas about knowledge, truth, the nature and meaning of life, etc.
a person who studies philosophy.
a person who seeks wisdom or enlightenment.
a student of philosophy.
a person whose philosophical perspective makes meeting trouble with equanimity easier.
an expounder of a theory in a particular area of experience.
one who philosophizes.
As you can see there is a host of meaning to the word philosopher. The primary one being “a”. Religious ideas are exempt from evaluation as knowledge, truth or facts. They fall into the category of beliefs or doctrines usually revealed by a deity or handed down from tradition and accepted without proof by an individual or a group.
Mr. Iqbal’s views do not fall into the category of knowledge or truth as accepted by logic or the scientific method. I can offer further reasons why his ideas or philosophy cannot be accepted as facts, truth or knowledge. In order to pass scientific muster, the ideas must be capable of being debated, evaluated, and examined in cold light of human logic and reasoning. Most scholars and philosophers not only conduct original research, but teach and advance their particular branch of knowledge in one way or another. Mr. Iqbal did research of a purely historical nature so we may accept him as a scholar, but we can’t put him down as other philosophers of western thought.
Of course I shall be deluged with objections on the use of the word western thought. There is a long line of philosophers from all parts of the world including Greece, Italy, Germany, the British Isles, and many other countries. Some of their theories were later repudiated upon further examination and discovery of more solid evidence or reasoning. Unfortunately, we can’t subject Mr. Iqbal’s ideas to the same rigorous examination due to their nature.
So far I have tried to show that Mr. Iqbal was representative of a small linguistic and religious group in the Indo-Pak subcontinent, he cannot be considered representative of the views or ideas of the entire East, nor can his work be considered a philosophical work. These were musings of a dedicated Muslim, and his poetry is beautiful and enjoyable. To take another example: Ghalib’s poetry contains many beautiful, unique and universal ideas but no one calls him a philosopher. It is my sincere beliefs that we like many peoples of the world have a habit of making our heroes larger than they really are out of love or devotion to them.
I could end it here, but I need to show that Mr. Iqbal knew many of his ideas were false and he still promoted them out of religious conviction. Take for example Juda ho deen siasat say to rah jati hay changeezi. Iqbal knew full well about the constitutional British monarchy which had been in existence for well over 500 years and Icelandic democracy had existed for nearly 900 years at the time of his writing these lines. But he just wanted to promote his ideas facts didn’t and couldn’t get in his way. Shikwa and Jawab-e-Shikwa a dialogue between man and a mythical being called God. That wasn’t stuff of facts either. Du neem unki thoker say sahra o darya, that too was a poetic expression nothing to do with reality.
Many of his ideas were indeed beautiful and universal in their appeal.
I believe there is very little correlation between poetry of Iqbal and facts or reality as the world knows it and we ought to acknowledge it. He was a man for the times, Muslims needed to be uplifted and inspired and he obliged with ease. I love Iqbal and enjoy him the same way I enjoy other great poets of our language. But to seek guidance for personal or political lives in Iqbal’s poetry can only end in disaster. I sincerely apologize if my ideas cause pain or hurt to anyone, but all is fair in the pursuit of truth. Thank you and have a wonderful day.
The author is a retired Pakistani Engineer, divides his time between Canada and Pakistan. A social observer of liberal values, and a secular humanist. E-mail: email@example.com
ALLAMA IQBAL: A FORCE OF PEACE AND POWER
By Marian Josehp
It is very often said that ‘understanding Iqbal means understanding peace.’ The vision and philosophy of Sir Allama Iqbal was very simple. In fact, his vision for the Muslims of the Sub-Continent makes him the ‘Spiritual Father of The Nation,’ whose wisdom and guidance remains a source of enlightenment for the entire nation even today. Iqbal, who specifically addressed the youth in his writings, paved for them a path of intellect and knowledge which, if pondered upon sincerely, would empower them to soar to the heights of glory.
International publication Daily Mirror, in a commemorative article published last year, wrote, “A former director of the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation Allama Sir Mohamed Iqbal was one of the finest thinkers of modern times. His range of understanding of the working of human mind and its chemistry was so wide, that even trying to become acquainted with the comprehensiveness of Allama’s thought and ideas, is daunting though an exciting experience. He is undoubtedly a great poet, but it is not fair to restrict him within the boundaries of mere flowery words. He was a philosopher, visionary, statesman and a historian.”
Throughout his life, Iqbal touched the hearts of people he met with deep influence. His impactful writings have always left the readers in an awe-struck mood. Those who study his writings witness to having a spiritual transformation. His writings, as the matter of fact, are taught worldwide while many top nitch universities offer his works as a specialized subject for higher studies.
Allama Iqbal, the poet of the East, is remembered every year on his death anniversary for being a strong inspirational force for nation that was created after much struggle and sacrifices. He remains the ‘Force of Peace and Power.’
Highly honoured internationally, Iqbal earned knighthood in 1923. The honour that is most attached his name is not ‘Sir’ but rather ‘Allama’ meaning ‘Great Scholar.’
Here are a few out of the many mementoes that commemorate Allama Iqbal.
Allama Iqbal’s last home in Lahore is now a museum that attracts visitors from world over.
Honorary Grave of Allama Iqbal at Mevlana Rumi’s Tomb in Konya, Turkey.
Famously called ‘Eghbal-i-Lahuri’ by Iranis, ‘Iqbal Lahori’ street is located in eastern Tehran. It is believed that his Persian revolutionary poetry played an important role in the awakening the people during the Irani Revolution. There is also an institute of Higher Studies named ‘Eghbal-i-Lahuri’ run by the Iranian Government offering degrees in social sciences and engineering.
During time Trinity College, Cambridge, Allama Iqbal stayed at 17 Portugal Place. This plaque commemorate his residential years there.
‘Iqbal-Ufer’ is a famous street in Heidelberg, Germany that pays tribute to the great poet and serves as a memory of association with the city and its people. The word “Ufer” means river bank in German as this street is right on the river Neckar.
The plaque reads on this house where Allama Iqbal lived
On the Centennial birth anniversary in 1977, stamps, a 100-rupee banknote and a coin were issued by the Pakistan government.